This chapter explores the backstage of government open data, and foregrounds the processes of its production and questions its specificities. Drawing on a series of in-depth interviews reverse pigmentation fungi several institutions, prendre des vitamines pour faire pousser les cheveux 2014 shows that the data are never simply and mechanically opened.
Instead, it describes how raw data themselves are actually shaped. Drawing on a two-year ethnographic study within several French administrations involved in open data programs, this article aims to investigate the conditions of the release of government data — the rawness of which open data policies require. This article describes two sets of phenomena.
First, far from being taken for granted, open data emerge in administrations through a progressive process that entails uncertain collective inquiries and extraction work. Second, the opening process draws on a series of transformations, as data are modified to satisfy an important criterion of open data policies: the need for both human and technical intelligibility. There are organizational consequences of these two points, which can notably lead to the visibilization or the invisibilization of data labor.
Finally, the article invites us to reconsider the apparent contradiction between the process of data release and the existence of raw data. Echoing the vocabulary of one of the interviewees, the multiple operations can be seen as a 'rawification' process by which open government data are carefully generated.
Such a notion notably helps to build a relational model of what counts as data and what counts as work. Dans ce chapitre, nous revenons sur l'émergence des politiques d'open data en mettant en lumière les grands principes de la transparence jusqu'à la modernisation de l'administration, en passant par la libre circulation de l'information que différentes initiatives ont progressivement stabilisés pour faire de l'ouverture des données publiques un enjeu international.
Nous montrons ensuite, à partir d'une enquête ethnographique menée dans plusieurs institutions françaises ce que cette ouverture implique concrètement : un travail délicat qui demeure largement invisible et représente le coût caché des principes fondateurs de l'open data.
This article makes a first step into questioning the diversity of maintenance practices. How can we understand the differences in the ways things are taken care of? What can we learn from the variety of justifications for objects to be mended, fixed, patched up, or patiently restored? In which conditions are these operations considered as important or negligible? To address these questions, the authors examine three dimensions that can help in identifying regimes of maintenance: the distribution of maintenance practices, the kinds of objects that are enacted through them, and the ecology of the visible and invisible at play in the various ways maintenance work is accomplished and organized.
Using several examples, they outline two distinct regimes in which these dimensions are configured in radically different manners. Can we interrogate a concept in a manner that is compatible with what conecpt itself conveys, while also remaining connected with the specific site in which concept is being used?
This essay undertake such an exercice with the notion of attachment, as it emerged at the Center for the Sociology of Innovation CSI in France, starting in the s. Having played a role in the history I am going to narrate, I will use self-analysis as a resource, even if a somewhat equivocal one. I will explore the virtues that we have collectively lent to the term attchment over the years. To do this, I will contrast three moments when we used it with different orientations at the CSI: to examin economic performativity Callon ; in the critique of emancipation Latour ; and in questionning amateurs' and caregivers' activity myself.
I will then briefly address how this relates to sociologists' necessary commitment in worlds "still in process of making" W. At the request of Valuation Studies, Antoine Hennion reflects on his own investigative trajectory as a way to explore the ways in which the sociology of attachment, which lies at the heart of his pragmatist approach, can refine our understanding of a number of recurring problems with which the sociology ofvaluation is confronted.
Este artículo enfoca sobre un retorno reflexivo en mi propia trayectoria en el CSI. Mi propósito no es fijar la historia sino releerla desde las preocupaciones presentes. Desde su fundación por L.
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Karpik enel CSI abogó por tomar seriamente las realidades que estaba investigando derecho, ciencia y tecnología, negocios, cultura.
Luego considero la emergencia de los enfoques pragmatistas en Francia en los años noventa y la gran variedad de concepciones a las que dieron lugar, en particular a través de debates con grupos cercanos como el GSPM y el CEMS en la EHESS de Paris, sobre el estatuto de los objetos, y examinando la influencia de las teorías de la acción provenientes de Estados Unidos.
This paper focuses on a reflexive return on my own trajectory at the CSI. My purpose is not to congeal the history but to reread it from present issues. From its foundation by L. Karpik inthe CSI advocated for taking seriously the realities it was investigating law, science and technology, business, culture.
I then consider the emergence of pragmatist approaches in France in the 90ies and the great variety of conceptions it gave rise to, in particular through debates with close groups like the Imparfait of maigrir w9 and the CEMS in Paris EHESS about the status of objects, and by examining the influence of theories of action coming from the USA.
Leaning on this genealogy, I show how pragmatist claims have informed my own work on amateurs and attachments, and discuss in conclusion the importance attachments, and discuss in conclusion the importance. But constraint is underlying in any action aiming at making people do something, even with their consent, especially when their ability to evaluate what is best for them may be altered.
Ceaselessly present in care, this ordinary, silent constraint should not be only deemed as a necessary evil to be prevented. In contrast with this legally-based view, the paper adopts a pragmatic perspective. Having outlined the characters of such a "situational ethics", the authors argue in conclusion that, provided caregivers are never quits with its use, constraint is compatible with care, and assume that care theories could fruitfully support this advocacy to maintaining the trouble in care practices.
This paper focuses on the relationships between innovation and democracy at city level. Focusing on the case of San Francisco, it discusses a particular way of imagining the city in the terms of permanent innovation. In the city of permanent innovation, individual urban problems are to be solved by a permanent supply of technological solutions.
Imagining the city in those terms has political implications, pertaining to the representation of social groups and public concerns on the one hand, to the public interventions deemed legitimate on the other hand. We contend that the democratic ordering at play in the city of permanent innovation is based on the permanent reconstruction of social identities, and on local experimental interventions. In San Francisco, these forms of urban action are controversial.
Proponents of interest-based democratic politics and anti-eviction activists voice counter-propositions for the definition of urban democracy. By contrast, these counter-propositions help us characterize the political project of the city of permanent innovation, which we label real-time democracy. What sort of reality is produced and conveyed to the business trainee through the set of pedagogical techniques that characterize the experiential business curriculum, and how does immersion in this particular kind of reality configure the business self?
This essay discusses some of the rhetorical and theatrical contrivances that are used to generate artificial business situations in which the student can experience a moment of decision and test his quality as a leader. These training formulas, we argue, rely on the therapeutic hope of dramaturgical self-realization, but often degenerate into a form of regressive fetishism in which the fantasy of existential resolve and serious decision-making can be playfully and safely enacted.
Surrealism and its demise provide an angle from which the peculiar fragility of these operations can be understood: what the experiential business curriculum provides, in this interpretation, amounts to a sort of subrealist shield, a protective dilution of the challenges that await in the world at large.
When the element of the ethical pledge is added to this compendium of techniques, the result is a self-referential and essentially indulgent form of spiritual exercise solely oriented to the auto-elevation of the business self.
What does it mean to turn something into capital? What does considering things as assets entail? What is this culture of valuation that asks that we capitalize on everything?
How can we make sense of the traits, necessities and upshots of this pervasive cultural condition? This book takes the reader to an ethnographic stroll down the trail of capitalization. Start-up companies, research centers, consulting firms, state enterprises, investment banks, public administrations: the territory can certainly prove strange and disorienting at first sight, with its blurred boundaries between private appropriation and public interest, economic sanity and moral breakdown, the literal and the metaphorical, the practical and the ideological.
The traveler certainly requires a resolutely pragmatist attitude, and a taste for the meanders of signification. But in all the jai 10 kilos a perdre in which we set foot in this inquiry we recognize a recurring semiotic complex: a scenario of valuation in which things signify by virtue of their capacity to become assets in the eye of an imagined investor.
A ground-breaking anthropological investigation on the culture of contemporary capitalism, this work directs attention to the largely unexplored problem of capitalization and offers a critical resource for current debates on neoliberalism and financialization. Dès lors, le questionnement demeure : quelles formes de présence les amateurs, profanes ou patients se voient-ils réservées dans les publications scientifiques?
Au nom de quels principes leur contribution est-elle valorisée et gratifiée ou, au contraire, minimisée, voire passée sous silence? Since the 17th century, scientific knowledge has been produced through a collective process, involving specific technologies used to perform experiments, to regulate modalities for participation of peers or lay people, and to ensure validation of the facts and publication of major results. In such a world guided by the quest for a new kind of truth against previous beliefs various forms of misconduct — from subtle plagiarism to the entire fabrication of data and results — have largely been considered as minimal, if not inexistent.
Facing numerous alerts, journals have generalized dedicated editorial formats to notify their readers of the emerging doubts affecting articles they had published. Les connaissances expérientielles que produisent ces associations et ces groupes constituent un défi pour les institutions scientifiques. Music, as a complex set of sounds, lyrics, practices, visual cues and physical acts, is a fruitful research object for examining globalization.
Observing the dissemination of musical genres such as indie rock enables us to understand how cultural objects circulate within our globalised societies.
This paper aims at showing how bands take part in a music world and identify with it. It is based on a qualitative research conducted with six indie rock bands in Switzerland.
Firstly, it describes how interviewed musicians participate in the world of indie rock through their listening practices and the conventions used to produce their music. These first observations underline the importance of non-human actors in the circulation and appropriation processes of the genre. I then look at the categories used by the interviewees and the way they identify with them.
The conclusion emphasizes the importance of drawing a distinction between networks of production and the categories used by actors, in order to give a clear picture of how they appropriate a musical genre, and by doing so, how they disseminate it.
Cet article décrit comment des neurologues diagnostiquent les maladies neurodégénératives, telles la maladie d'Alzheimer et la démence fronto-temporale, aujourd'hui aux Etats-Unis.
En documentant la manière dont l'expertise médicale est enracinée dans l'expérience concrète du monde sensible, cet article tente alors de décrire et de saisir l'intuition de l'expert comme un effort, conscient, plutôt que comme une notion ineffable, résistante à l'analyse et confinée dans un arrière-plan inconscient. This article describes how today in the United States neurologists diagnose forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Taking as a starting-point the pervasive context of uncertainty in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, it examines how uncertainty is not merely an epistemological obstacle to the making of knowledge.
This epistemological dilemma is at the core of the politics of verification, which consists in the distribution of restraint and responsibility between non-risky and risky banks. This qualitative investigation is focused on France and is based on interviews with relevant policy actors and documentary analysis.
Has patient experience or patient experiential knowledge the potential to constitute other means of doing science and technology? Does it represent an alternative to mainstream science? Nous montrons que le marché des fans au kilo articule deux univers marchands distincts : celui, légitime, de la publicité sur les médias sociaux, et celui, condamné, de la manipulation des signaux de la notoriété.
In recent years, web sites where individual consumers can rate and review goods and services have mushroomed all over the Internet. Restaurants are particularly affected by online reviewing. If the impact of online consumer reviews OCRs on the demand side of markets is now well understood and measured, few studies examine the reception of this new evaluation method by those who are assessed.
Based on interviews with French restaurant managers, our research shows that OCRs systems reconfigure relations of accountability in the restaurant industry. We use the notion of reactivity to describe the mechanisms through which the new evaluation system transforms the activity of restaurants. We also examine the affects surrounding the reception of ratings and reviews by restaurant managers and the moral criteria that accompany their discourses on online reviews.
Many restaurants consider online reviews as a brutal and hypocritical mode of judgment. The judgment produced by online ratings and reviews is not easily borne by restaurant managers, because it challenges the conventions of quality they had previously internalized as legitimate, that is, those produced by professional experts. We interpret this ambivalent reception as the unfinished movement of transforming a performative reputation device into a legitimate evaluation institution.
The diagrammatic slideshow constitutes a crucial communicational instrument in management consulting. However, its semiotic implications remain poorly understood. How do consultants create slides that they deem significant? How do they recognize a good slide or an effective diagram? What practical criteria do they use? To tackle these questions, we develop a pragmatist approach based on the theory of signs of Charles S. Drawing from data collected through ethnographic participant observation, our study analyzes how a team of consultants drafts a single slide intended to represent the problems of a client organization and assesses the evolving strength of the document.
Depuis la fin des annéesle droit de la non-discrimination syndicale a été largement renforcé, que ce soit dans les textes de loi ou à travers la mobilisation judiciaire.
Cet article porte sur la façon dont ces évolutions juridiques ont effectivement modifié la situation des représentants syndicaux en entreprises.
Ces monographies révèlent un écart entre les accords de droit syndical négociés pour les mandatés les plus investis, et visant à garantir une évolution salariale équivalente à celle de leur groupe professionnel, et les pratiques managériales de terrain, marquées par une stigmatisation des syndicalistes de proximité et des pratiques protestataires.
How did organizations comply with these new legal rules? Four in-depth case studies in two former public companies and in two private ones allow to describe and analyse the diversity of right practices and their relations with litigation. Even if some agreements try to recognize some skills and abilities acquired through union experiences, they mainly include a new rhetoric on social partnership.
Il montre que dans un premier temps, les services passent par une véritable enquête collective pour identifier des jeux de données. Enfin, les données sont elles-mêmes directement transformées : elles sont nettoyées et subissent des modifications qui leur assurent une double intelligibilité, humaine et technique. Environmental policy increasingly resorts to market-based instruments in order to meet sustainability objectives.
In this paper, we examine the complex ways in which the operationalization of policy objectives and the organization of markets are intertwined, focusing on two other examples of European environmental regulation.
The second one is the Renewable Energy Directive fromwhich introduced criteria for the definition of the sustainability of biofuels. Through the analysis of the design and implementation of these two directives, we identify a central concern for the coexistence of various objects, and various initiatives undertaken by European institutions, member states and private actors.
We use the notion of coexistence to describe a European political and economic ordering that is inherently hybrid, and cannot be reduced to a mere delegation of policy objectives to the market, or a legal constraint imposed on all European actors. The present article analyzes potential and limits of crowdsourcing software mobile and web applications as tools for civic participation. Based on an empiric study of six Russian and French civic applications, developed in response to a particular public problem corruption, electoral falsifications, police violence and urban problemsthe article proposes to address the problem of digital asymmetry from the perspective of pragmatism, STS and software studies The author focuses on the phase of design, coding and testing, and analyzes the procedures of standardization and classification necessary for developing the interfaces.
Developing a civic application, coders propose a certain definition of a public problem and rectify it in the interface. The article argues that an active participation of users in the improvement of ma pousse de cheveux pylone antibes application may help to overcome the limits and asymmetries. La thèse étudie les applications dites citoyennes pour mobiles et web qui sont développées masque naturel pour cheveux apres shampooing utilisation réponse aux problèmes publics variés et basées sur le principe de crowdsourcing.
La recherche montre que les interfaces des applications façonnent et standardisent la participation en se basant sur les documents de référence : les lois, les réglementationsnormatives et techniques.
La comparaison entre applications développées par les administrations publiques et projets portés par la société civile permet de distinguer deux façons de communiquer : les chaînes courtes et les chaînes longues. The PhD dissertation studies new digital participative technologies called "civic apps", applications for mobile and web developed in response to a large scope of public problems and based on the principle of crowdsourcing. The research focuses on the conception of these tools, their usages and the way these tools transform the communication among citizens and between citizens and public administrations.
It also explores new formats of civic tech innovation, such as civic hackathons, and question the usage of programming code as a new tool of collective action. The thesis calls upon the methodologies of sociology of science and technology, sociology of public problems, political science and science of information and communication. Based on a case-study of several civic apps in France and Russia, the inquiry adresses the following question: how does the translation of public problems into programming code occur?
And how do these applications transform civic participation? The research shows that the interfaces standardize and format the practices of participation, using documents such as laws, technical norms and standards. However, this standardization has its limits. Focusing on the moments of failure and trial, such as tests, updates or debug of applications, the inquiry highlights the practices of bricolage and detournement, deployed by users in order to overcome the framing by design and participate in the rewriting of the applications.
The thesis compares civic applications with the applications developed by public administrations and distinguishes two models of communication called the "long chains" and the "short chains". However, instead of opposing administrative and civic initiatives, the thesis proposes to think from "in-between", analyzing the articulations and arrangements of these socio-technical networks.
This paper aims at giving an overview of the different core protocols used for decentralized chat and email-oriented services. The broadening of the anti-discrimination legislation and the growing use of litigation have put pressure on régime or regime universel to respond to the law by elaborating formal rules and, in the case of France, negotiating collective agreements on union rights.
This article addresses the issue of union victimization by investigating the various organizational responses to anti-discrimination law. By focusing on in-depth case studies over a long period of time, it offers new insights into the processes whereby law is internalized and how they interact with litigation over time, and also highlights the active, contested and changing role of HR professionals and trade unionists in the shaping of organizational responses.
The idea of reflexivity has much to offer to the analysis of taste - but reflexivity in its ancient sense, a form neither active nor passive, pointing to an originary state where things, persons, and events have just arrived, with no action, subject or objects yet decided. Objects of taste are not present, inert, available and at our service.
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They give themselves up, they shy away, they impose themselves. On the contrary, they make themselves detect them, through a continuous elaboration of procedures that put taste to the test. Rather, it is a collective technique, whose analysis helps us to understand the ways we make ourselves sensitized, to things, to ourselves, to situations and to moments, while simultaneously controlling how those feelings might be shared and discussed with others.
Que se passe-t-il entre les gens, entre les lieux, entre les moments. À la fois des événements et des échanges, dessinant une histoire possible.
But why and how do experiments matter, and for whom? Answering these questions requires that one leave the locality of the experimental site and account for the construction of wider spaces wherein experiments matter. Using examples related to the public debate on, critique and government of nanotechnology in France, the article identifies three of these spaces.
The first one is characterized by the replication of technologies of participation, the second by the conduct of radical critique, and the third by the constitution of objects of government. Thus, the study of political experiments proposed here offers analytical entry points for an examination of democratic ordering. The European Union is the outcome of a process that is still very much in development. This process was conceived from its inception as a matter of perfecting a collective of at least three identities: a geographical space torn apart by devastating wars and longing for peace, a market that could benefi t from the extension of the circulation of economic goods, and a political entity where liberal democracy would finally triumph.
Th e idea of progress was at the core of the European project and closely articulated with the rapid economic growth experienced by Western European countries in the postwar decades. Progress, there, was as much economic as it was political and moral, as it associated the extension of markets with the development of liberal democracy and a collective concern for lasting peace.
This article investigates the modalities of integration of social, political and moral issues in urban consumption markets. The analysis follows the history of the reforms of the French retail implementation provisions over the past 40 years. By examining three significant episodes of this history, it highlights the importance of interweaving concerned actors in market agencements, and shaping market boundaries. The field-in-emergence is creating futures, problems and new objects that remain elusive.
By turning an ethnographic gaze on the nascent stages of a new research field, we can pose interesting questions about the formation of local configurations and their relations to wider policies and actions in ways that the analysis of established fields would struggle to illuminate.
Placing a science means that the practices and discourses of the science co-emerge with its modes of organisation and geographies and with its histories and futures. Lafayette anticipation est une fondation d'art contemporain qui met l'accent sur la production et l'accompagnement des artistes. Le projet Lafayette ReSourceune archive sémantique en temps réel, a pour vocation de permettre le suivi de l'ensemble des activités qui contribuent à donner naissance à une oeuvre.
Elle entend ainsi faciliter la compréhension du travail réalisé par la fondation en interne, donner au public des prise pour apprécier les oeuvres dans leur déploiement l'art en train de se faire et non l'art déjà fait et livrer du même coup aux artistes un nouveau matériau pour la création. The quandaries of business valuation have marked the pedagogy of business administration since early attempts at institutionalizing the managerial discipline.
It is however now commonly admitted, at least in legitimate financial and entrepreneurial circles, that the value of a business that is, the monetary assessment of a functioning enterprise established in a competitive environment resides primarily in its earning power or, in other words, that what a business is worth equals its capacity to generate a stream of revenues for the investor or investors that provide it with funding.
How did this idea take shape and how did it permeate the business mind? An examination of early pedagogical materials at the Harvard Business School an influential reference for the socialization of the businessperson and, in particular, of the vagaries of the idea of capitalization and its exercising in the classroom provides a fine occasion to advance understanding of the meaning of such ideals of business and business value, and of their institutionalization.
This empirical study can, in turn, be employed in order to discuss and refine critically our interpretation of what a comment bien se motiver pour maigrir of economic valuation is and how it operates.
How natural is economic nature and how provocative is it to claim that this nature is a provoke done? The purpose of this contribution is to expose the problem of the naturalness of economic things. The very idea of the performativity of economics and the critical reactions it prompts are analysed in these terms: that is, as an anthropological test on the quandaries of economic naturalism. La collecte de sang auprès de donneurs en vue de la transfusion sanguine, aussi bien que la distribution des produits sanguins à leurs bénéficiaires, est régulée par des organisations spécifiques, dont la médiation dans la transaction qui lie les donneurs aux bénéficiaires est reconnue.
La transparence de la politique transfusionnelle est affirmée comme une avancée et une garantie par les institutions en charge. L'activité scientifique est traversée d'une tension fondamentale entre les formes organisationnelles du travail collaboratif et les politiques d'évaluation qui consacrent des génies individuels.
Cette tension relance régulièrement les débats autour de la signature des articles scientifiques et alimente, depuis les annéesla production d'outils nouveaux destinés à recomposer les modes d'attribution des productions scientifiques, dès lors que leurs acteurs sont multiples et leur hiérarchisation âprement discutée. En se centrant sur les sciences de la vie, la recherche médicale et la physique des particules, David Pontille analyse les transformations concomitantes des modes de contribution scientifique et des formes, matérielles et institutionnalisées, de la signature des articles.
Cet ouvrage engage une vaste réflexion susceptible de soutenir une autre politique d'évaluation du travail scientifique dans l'ensemble des domaines de la recherche.
This study examines the role of the academic affiliation in research evaluation. The increasing structural complexity of the French research landscape has a massive influence onthe construction of reliable indicators for the purposes of research assessment, one of the mostdamageable downside being the heterogeneity of the bibliometric indicators.
The study aimsto make the inventory of practices and to suggest solutions, sometimes relying on technology,to overcome the visibility issue of the French research and higher education institutions. This paper examines the testing and the pricing of orphan drugs, e. Due to the small size of these populations, orphan molecules question established evidentiary practices, namely randomized controlled trials RCT and health technology assessments HTAdriven by numbers and statistical reasoning.
These initiatives offer new insights into the pricing of orphan drugs as a testing device of who is accountable for the evaluation of these molecules, and of how rare diseases are made to count for society at large.
This chapter proposes investigating the efforts of current institutions to answer a simple, modest, and low-profile question: Does the project fit within the budget? It traces how this simple question is answered when it comes to the governance of a peculiar material: nuclear waste. It proposes approaching financial evaluations that are conducted within the context of the North-American nuclear waste programme as spaces in which the political and moral values of the State are constantly reformulated, particularly in relation to its responsibility towards far future generations.
Cet article explore la façon dont les cliniciens sondent, déchiffrent et se méfient de la parole des proches des patients dans une clinique américaine spécialisée dans le diagnostic de la démence. Marcel Boiteux, Gabriel Dessus et Pierre Massé, pour ne citer que quelques noms, pensent, au début des calculs, appliquer la meilleurescience économique du temps, la théorie du rendement social de Maurice Allais.
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The Act of 8 April nationalized electricity in France and created a new public monopoly, Électricité de France. A small group of people, mainly from the corps des Ponts-et-Chaussées, was assembled to provide the public utility with a pricing policy. The theory claimed that marginal cost pricing would bring the power sector to a state of maximum efficiency, that it would help governing the sector according to the public interest, and solve rationally the issue of nationalization and its aims.
But the story turned out to be quite different. Pricing electricity did not mean applying to ridiculous amusement park rides sector the laws of efficiency through transfers of necessities.
Rather, in a tentative, partial, progressive, often contradictory manner, the work allowed to describe and thus discuss possible exploitation projects. I propose to term this process the formulation of the optimum. The front end application server will report a HeuristicMixedException to the application.
Although the transaction committed, the subordinate branch in the backend server rolled back and a mixed transactional outcome occurred. Investigation shows that: 1 - The backend server had previously started to recover a peer server's transaction logs stored in a database and generated a CWRLSI message indicating this. This resulted in WLM misrouting requests for the second phase of the transaction 2PC protocol ie commit to the application server that were intended for the peer application server, the prepare phase having been routed correctly.
More importantly, it also resulted in the incorrect processing of those requests resulting in a org. This Exception and minor code indicates that the target transaction does not exist as opposed to indicating that the transaction was not located in the target runtime. This results in a javax. HeuristicMixedException in the front end application server and the transaction is forgotten. Re: Ensilage par PixelAgri lun.
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